Lion F. Gardiner




My biological interests and research have focused on invertebrate animals and marine biology, particularly the development, ecology, and biogeography of deep-sea crustaceans.

Higher Education

For the last several years I have been involved increasingly in the effort to help higher education move from an atheoretical, tradition-based to a research-based, theory-guided enterprise. This work responds to a strong perceived need nationally for colleges and universities to use systematically the findings of research on how people learn and college students develop, management of complex organizations, and leadership to improve their students’ learning. I’m involved in translating this research and established research-based best practice into forms academicians can use through my writing, conference presentations, and consultation with colleges, universities, higher education associations, and The National Academy for Academic Leadership (External as well as our graduate Effective College Teaching course (26:120:560) and various other activities here at Rutgers University.


B.S. in Zoology, Wheaton College (Illinois), 1960.

M.S. in Zoology, University of Michigan, 1964.

Ph.D. in Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, 1974.


  • Lion F. Gardiner. 2005. Book review of The Quiet Crisis: How Higher Education is Failing America by Peter Smith. Anker Publishing, 2004. 174 pp. National Teaching and Learning Forum 14(2). Available at External
  • Lion F. Gardiner. 2005. Invited lead chapter, “Transforming the environment for learning: A crisis of quality.” In To Improve the Academy: Resources for faculty, instructional, and organizational development, pp. 3-23. Vol. 22. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Robert M. Diamond, Lion F. Gardiner, and Daniel W. Wheeler. 2002. Requisites for Sustainable Institutional Change. In Robert M. Diamond (Ed.) Field Guide to Academic Leadership, pp. 15-24. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Lion F. Gardiner. 2002. Research on Learning and Student Development and Its Implications. In Robert M. Diamond (Ed.) Field Guide to Academic Leadership, pp. 89-109. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Lion F. Gardiner. 2002. Student Development: Monitoring the Quality of Learning and Development. In Robert M. Diamond (Ed.) Field Guide to Academic Leadership, pp. 111-134. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Lion F. Gardiner. 2000. “Why We Must Change: The Evidence from Research.” Thought & Action, 16(2): 121-138. Reprinting of 1998 article with new postscript in retrospective issue of journal. Available at External
  • Lion F. Gardiner, Caitlin Anderson, and Barbara L. Cambridge (Eds.) 1997. Learning Through Assessment: A Resource Guide for Higher Education. Washington, D. C.: American Association for Higher Education, Assessment Forum. 116 pp.
  • Lion F. Gardiner. 1996. Redesigning Higher Education: Producing Dramatic Gains in Student Learning. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report Vol. 23, No. 7. San Francisco, Cal.: Jossey-Bass. 225 pp.
  • Lion F. Gardiner. 1989. Planning for Assessment: Mission Statements, Goals, Objectives. A Guide for Colleges and Universities. New Jersey Department of Higher Education, Trenton. 256 pp.
  • Lion F. Gardiner. 1975. The systematics, postmarsupial development, and ecology of the deep-sea family Neotanaidae (Crustacea, Tanaidacea). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 170. 265 pp.

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